When fully manned, a Watchtower-class station has the population of a small city. From the Commanding Officer on down, there are multiple departments responsible for efficient operation of the station and it's personnel. Within a department, there may be specialized, limited-scope, or, few-personnel sub-departments. Each department maintains a watch rotation and on-call readiness.
The commanding officer of a ship or station is addressed as Captain regardless of rank. Officers of Captain rank are addressed by name (eg. Captain Picard) to avoid confusion with a ship or station's commanding officer (ie. the captain).
The officer responsible for personnel, administration and logictics. It is the second-in-command of a ship or station.
An officer in charge and effective control of the Operations Centre (Ops) or major compartment (eg. Engineering Duty Officer, Hangar Duty Officer).
Department Head: Chief Communications Officer
The Communications Department manages messages to and from ships, stations, and planet-based facilities via various sophisticated electronic equipment. It manages internal communications. In support of security and intelligence it also monitors third-party communications.
Department Head: Chief Counselor
Specialized Departments: Chaplaincy, Counselling, Social Work
The Chief Counselor is responsible for the mental and emotional wellbeing of personnel. It includes therapy, group support and advocacy.
A Chaplain is dedicated to promoting the philosophical, spiritual, religious and morale of personnel. This is a highly specialized role specific to particular philosophies and denominations.
Department Head: Commanding Officer
Specialized Departments: Exchange Office, Federation Liaison Office
This department oversees and coordinates foreign-service Exchange Officers, foreign dignitaries, foreign diplomatic personnel, Federation Liaison Officers (FLOs) and civilian administration. It works closely with the Honours Department.
The Federation Liaison Officer is accountable to the Federation Council as an observer; independant of the ship or station's Commanding Officer
Department Head: Chief Engineering Officer (ChEng)
The Engineering Department responsible for damage control and acute repairs; preventive and proactive maintenance; and, system upgrades of the ship or station's communications systems; computers and data network, and, library; environmental systems including gravity, sanitation, ventilation and water; exterior surfaces; manufacturing and replication systems; powerplant and power distribution; propulsion systems; recreational systems; shuttles and small craft; tactical systems including deflector, phasers, shields, and, torpedoes; and, transporters.
Department Head: Chief Operations Officer
This department coordinates the transport of personnel to and from a ship or station, and, maintains a fleet of auxiliary vessels for that purpose. Maintenance and repair of auxiliary vessels by a joint Flight Operations-Engineering sub-department.
Department Head: Commanding Officer or Chief Counselor
The Honours Department is also responsible for executing tradition, customs and honours aboard ships and stations.
Department Head: Chief Intelligence Officer
The Intelligence Department surveilles, reconnoiters, analyses and disseminates persons, communications, information, and sensor intelligence work product to the Commanding Officer. This department may also partake counter-intelligence operations. The Chief Intelligence Officer is an officer of Starfleet Intelligence; outside the Commanding Officer's chain of command. It works closely with Communications Department and Security Department.
Department Head: Chief Medical Officer (CMO)
Specialized Departments: Dental Medicine, Field Medicine, Physical Therapy, Public Health, Surgery
The Medical Department is responsible for the treatment of sick and injured personnel; preventive and proactive healthcare; and, public health and disease prevention. Small ships and away missions may be headed by a trained Field Medic in lieu of a Medical Officer. Hygiene and sanitation by a joint Medical-Engineering sub-department.
Specialized Department(s): Astrometrics, Helm, Traffic Control
The ship’s navigator briefs the Commanding Officer and Duty Officer on the position of the ship, the direction of travel and plots safe navigation given astrometric and political boundaries. The Helm Operator implements navigation.
The Traffic Control Department is in charge of ships in the proximity of and docking at a station.
Department Head: Chief Operations Officer
The Operations Department is responsible for maintaining all administrative data and documentation necessary for the ship to function properly. These functions include data processing, as well as recreational, food and supply services, security, and communications.
Department Head: Chief Engineering Officer
The Propulsion department is responsible for the operation of the deflector array, impulse engines, warp core and warp nacelles.
Department Head: Chief of Security
Specialized Departments: Armoury
The department in charge of boarding security; combat training; compartment security; intruder search, interdiction and detention; personnel and dignitary protection; and, regulation enforcement and investigation; . Investigation and incarceration (ie. Brig) responsibilities fall to Security. The Chief Armourer or Sergeant-at-Arms is responsible for the administration, storage and maintenance of service weapons, small arms and other munitions. Aboard many ships and stations, the Chief of Security Office is held by the Chief Tactical Officer.
Department Head: Chief Supply Officer or Quartermaster
This department is responsible for running the ship's or station's ward rooms and messing spaces; quarters assignment; uniform provision; barbershops and personal care services; emergency stores; and, recreation services. Recreation services include procurement, manufacture, maintenance and distribution of personal equipment and fixtures; and, scheduling of recreational spaces (eg. Holodecks). Spare parts manufacture and storage by a joint Supply-Engineering sub-department. On many ships, the Supply Office is held by the Executive Officer.
Department Head: Chief Tactical Officer
Specialized Departments: Tactical Engineering
The Tactical Duty Officer maintains readiness of defensive and offensive systems from the Bridge. This department is in charge of tactical decision-making, coordination, oversight and counsel of the commanding officer in potential and active combat situations. Shields, phasers and torpedo systems are maintained and tested by a joint Tactical-Engineering sub-department.
Department Head: Executive Officer
This department is responsible for the continued education of advancement exams and coordination with specialty schools. Safety regulation awareness, equipment safety, procedural hazards and accident prevention are a continual focus of the Training Department. Combat training is a responsibility of the Security Department. Personnel health and safety by a joint Training-Medical sub-department.
The Chief Science Officer is the officer-in-charge of oversight and coordination of scientific personnel. Provision and maintenance of equipment is by a joint Sciences-Supply sub-department.
Science Officers engage in research, experiment and analysis as well as serve as mission specialists in support of ship and station operations.
The study of anthropology; archaeology; culture; economics; history; linguistics; philosophy; politics; sociology; and, theology.
The study of artificial intelligence; computing; cybernetics and robotics; and, electronics.
The study of biochemistry; bio-engineering; biology and xenobiology; botany and paleobotany; paleontology; virology and nanobiology; and, zoology.
The study of economics; theoretical and applied mathematics; and, statistics.
The study of chemistry; metallurgy and alloys; and, polymers.
The study of astrophysics; cosmology; quantum mechanics; physics; and, subspace mechanics.
The study of climatology; ecology; hydrology; geography; geology; and, seismology.